Category Archives: Church and State

The concept of Patronage

The concept of “Patronage” is related to the great “Investiture Conflict” of European History. Both of these terms refer to the question of who should have the authority to nominate an individual to a Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical office (ie: a … Continue reading

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“El Perico” (The Parakeet)

“El Perico” -or in English, “The Parakeet” is the name of a weekly publication edited and published by Dr. Martinez first for 3 months in 1885-6 and later in in 1889-1895.  In this publication, Dr. Martinez exposed the motives and … Continue reading

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Alfaro in Ecuador Today

The memory of Eloy Alfaro is kept alive in Ecuador today Centenary Commemorations On the occasion of the Centenary of the events of January 28th, 1912, appropriate ceremonies commemorated the great contributions of Eloy Alfaro, presided over by his great … Continue reading

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Human Rights and the Concordat

Background Before discussing the serious Human Rights violations of the Concordat of 1862 we should mention that conditions in early 19th century Ecuador were truly extreme. The population was lawless and contentious and deeply divided politically into bitterly contentious factions. … Continue reading

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Pope Pius IX

After his original ordination as a priest, Count Mastai-Feretti had been sent by the then Pope Pius VII on a mission to Chile and Peru to assist the Vatican legate in those countries as an auditor.  When the Conclave elected … Continue reading

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Martinez and Alfaro

Historical and Biographical Background Dr. Francisco X. Martinez (1850-1917) was a prominent Ecuadorian Surgeon but he also spoke out on public issues confronting Ecuadorian Culture in his times and in later life he became a prominent Statesman.  When he was … Continue reading

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Garcia Moreno

Gabriel Garcia Moreno was the President of Ecuador from 1861 to 1865 and from 1869 to 1875. He was well educated – a chemistry professor – unlike most of the Ecuadorian Presidents who proceeded him, who came from military backgrounds. … Continue reading

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What is a Concordat?

A concordat is a legal agreement – often characterized as a treaty – between the Vatican under the Roman Catholic Pope and a sovereign nation-state.  Concordats date back to the early middle ages and continue in some localities till the … Continue reading

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The Concordat of 1862

Full text of the Ecuador Concordat of 1862 Glossary (click to expand) of terms used in the Concordat Apostolic See: Title assumed by the Pope intended to call attention to the fact that he claims to be associated with one … Continue reading

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